[Part - 2]: React web application development using good practical methodology 2023

Jul 8, 2023·

8 min read

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  1. Testing: Write tests for your React components and application logic. Use testing frameworks like Jest and React Testing Library. For the todo list application, write tests to ensure components render correctly, handle user interactions, and update state appropriately.


    Assume we have a Button component that renders a button element with a given label:

     import React from 'react';
     const Button = ({ label, onClick }) => {
       return <button onClick={onClick}>{label}</button>;
     export default Button;

    To test this component, follow these steps:

    1. Create a Test File: Create a file named Button.test.js in the same directory as your component. Jest recognizes test files with .test.js or .spec.js extensions.

    2. Write Test Case: Inside Button.test.js, write a test case that ensures the component renders correctly and handles the click event:

    import React from 'react';
    import { render, fireEvent } from '@testing-library/react';
    import Button from './Button';

    test('renders button with label and handles click event', () => {
      // Render the Button component
      const { getByText } = render(<Button label="Click Me" onClick={() => {}} />);

      // Verify that the button renders with the correct label
      const buttonElement = getByText('Click Me');

      // Simulate a click event on the button

      // Add additional assertions based on the expected behavior of the click event

In this test case, we:

  • Render the Button component using the render function from @testing-library/react.

  • Use the getByText function to find the button element by its label text.

  • Assert that the button is present in the document.

  • Simulate a click event on the button using fireEvent.click.

  • You can then add additional assertions based on the expected behavior of the click event, such as checking if a specific function was called or if the component's state was updated.

  1. Run Tests: To run the tests, execute the following command in your project's root directory:
    npm test

Jest will search for test files with the .test.js or .spec.js extension and execute them. It will display the test results in the terminal.

By following these steps, you can effectively test your React components using Jest and React Testing Library. Remember to write test cases that cover different use cases and potential edge cases to ensure the robustness of your application.

  1. Code Organization: Organize your code into modular files and folders. Group related components, styles, and utilities together. For the todo list application, you can have separate folders for components, styles, and services/API calls.


    Assume we have a project for a blog website. Here's an example structure for organizing the code:

     ├── components/
     │   ├── Header/
     │   │   ├── Header.js
     │   │   ├── Header.css
     │   │   └── index.js
     │   ├── Post/
     │   │   ├── Post.js
     │   │   ├── Post.css
     │   │   └── index.js
     │   └── ...
     ├── pages/
     │   ├── Home/
     │   │   ├── Home.js
     │   │   ├── Home.css
     │   │   └── index.js
     │   ├── About/
     │   │   ├── About.js
     │   │   ├── About.css
     │   │   └── index.js
     │   └── ...
     ├── services/
     │   ├── api.js
     │   └── ...
     ├── utils/
     │   ├── formatDate.js
     │   └── ...
     ├── App.js
     ├── index.js
     └── ...

    In this example:

    • The src directory is the root directory of your project.

    • The components directory contains reusable components used throughout the application. Each component has its own directory with a JavaScript file, CSS file, and an index.js file for exporting the component.

    • The pages directory contains components specific to each page of the application. Each page component has its own directory with a JavaScript file, CSS file, and an index.js file.

    • The services directory holds utility files for API calls or other services used by the application.

    • The utils directory contains utility functions or modules that can be used across the project.

    • The App.js file is the main component that serves as the entry point for your application.

    • The index.js file is responsible for rendering the root component (App.js) and mounting it to the DOM.

With this structure, you can easily navigate through the project and find the relevant files for each component or page. It promotes code modularity and maintainability.

When working with larger projects, you might consider further organizing the code into subdirectories based on domain or feature. For example, you could have separate directories for authentication, user-related components, blog-related components, etc.

Remember to adapt the code organization structure to fit the specific needs and requirements of your project. Consistency and clarity are key when organizing your codebase.

  1. Performance Optimization: Optimize performance by minimizing unnecessary re-renders using memoization techniques like React.memo or useMemo. Lazy-load components or data using React.lazy and React Suspense for better initial loading performance.

    Example :

    Here's an example that demonstrates some common performance optimization techniques:

    1. Memoization with React.memo: React provides the React.memo higher-order component to memoize functional components. Memoization prevents unnecessary re-renders of components when their props haven't changed.
    import React from 'react';

    const MyComponent = React.memo(({ data }) => {
      // Component rendering logic

    export default MyComponent;

In this example, MyComponent is wrapped with React.memo to memoize it. This ensures that the component will only re-render if the data prop changes.

  1. Using useCallback and useMemo: The useCallback and useMemo hooks are used to memoize functions and values, respectively. They prevent unnecessary re-creation of functions or calculations in each render cycle.
    import React, { useCallback, useMemo } from 'react';

    const MyComponent = () => {
      const memoizedCallback = useCallback(() => {
        // Memoized callback logic
      }, []);

      const memoizedValue = useMemo(() => {
        // Memoized value calculation
        return expensiveCalculation();
      }, [dependency]);

      // Component rendering logic

In this example, useCallback ensures that memoizedCallback is only re-created if the dependency array changes. Similarly, useMemo memoizes the memoizedValue and recomputes it only if the dependency value changes.

  1. Lazy Loading with React.lazy and Suspense: React provides the React.lazy function along with the Suspense component for lazy-loading components. Lazy loading allows you to load components only when they are needed, improving the initial loading performance.
    import React, { Suspense } from 'react';

    const LazyComponent = React.lazy(() => import('./LazyComponent'));

    const MyComponent = () => {
      return (
        <Suspense fallback={<div>Loading...</div>}>
          <LazyComponent />

    export default MyComponent;

In this example, LazyComponent is lazily loaded using React.lazy and rendered within a Suspense component. The fallback prop defines what should be shown while the component is being loaded.

  1. Debouncing and Throttling Event Handlers: To optimize event handlers, especially for events like scroll or resize that can trigger frequently, you can use libraries like Lodash or custom implementations to debounce or throttle the event handlers.
    import React, { useState, useEffect } from 'react';
    import { debounce } from 'lodash';

    const MyComponent = () => {
      const [scrollPosition, setScrollPosition] = useState(0);

      const handleScroll = debounce(() => {
        const currentPosition = window.pageYOffset;
      }, 200);

      useEffect(() => {
        window.addEventListener('scroll', handleScroll);

        return () => {
          window.removeEventListener('scroll', handleScroll);
      }, [handleScroll]);

      // Component rendering logic

In this example, the handleScroll function is debounced using the debounce function from Lodash. It ensures that the scroll event is handled only once every 200 milliseconds, reducing the number of invocations and improving performance.

Remember, performance optimization should be approached carefully and targeted to specific areas that need improvement. It's important to measure the impact of optimizations and focus on areas that provide the most significant performance gains.

  1. Code Reviews and Documentation: Conduct code reviews to ensure code quality and share knowledge within the team. Document your components, APIs, and architectural decisions using tools like JSDoc or Markdown to provide insights and guidelines for future developers.

    Example :

    1. Documentation: Documentation is crucial for ensuring code understandability and easing onboarding for new developers. Let's consider adding documentation to the UserProfile component using JSDoc comments:
     * Renders the user profile information.
     * @component
     * @param {Object} user - The user object with profile information.
     * @param {string} user.name - The user's name.
     * @param {string} user.email - The user's email.
     * @param {string} user.avatar - The URL of the user's avatar image.
    const UserProfile = ({ user }) => {
      return (
          <img src={user.avatar} alt="User Avatar" />

    export default UserProfile;

In this example, JSDoc comments are added to provide clear documentation for the UserProfile component. It describes the component's purpose, the expected user prop with its properties, and their types.

  1. Continuous Integration and Deployment (CI/CD): Implement a CI/CD pipeline to automate the build, test, and deployment process. Configure tools like GitHub Actions, CircleCI, or Jenkins to run tests on every pull request and deploy the application to staging or production environments.

    Example :

    Continuous Integration (CI) and Deployment (CD) help automate the process of building, testing, and deploying your React application. Here's an example setup using popular tools like GitHub Actions and Netlify:

    1. Setup GitHub Actions: Create a .github/workflows/main.yml file in your project's repository to define the CI/CD workflow using GitHub Actions. Here's an example configuration:
    codename: CI/CD

          - main

        runs-on: ubuntu-latest

          - name: Checkout code
            uses: actions/checkout@v2

          - name: Install dependencies
            run: npm ci

          - name: Run tests
            run: npm test

          - name: Build application
            run: npm run build

        needs: build
        runs-on: ubuntu-latest

          - name: Deploy to Netlify
            uses: nwtgck/actions-netlify@v1
              publish-dir: ./build
              deploy-token: ${{ secrets.NETLIFY_AUTH_TOKEN }}
              flags: --prod

In this example, the workflow is triggered on pushes to the main branch. It consists of two jobs: build and deploy.

The build job checks out the code, installs dependencies, runs tests, and builds the application.

The deploy job deploys the built application to Netlify using the nwtgck/actions-netlify GitHub Action. Make sure to set the NETLIFY_AUTH_TOKEN secret in your GitHub repository settings, containing your Netlify authentication token.

  1. Setup Netlify: Configure Netlify to automatically deploy your React application. Connect your repository to Netlify and configure the deployment settings, including the build command and publish directory.

  2. Configure Environment Variables: To store sensitive information like API keys, set environment variables. In the GitHub repository settings, add environment variables like NETLIFY_AUTH_TOKEN for the Netlify authentication token.

With this setup, whenever you push changes to the main branch, the CI/CD workflow defined in the GitHub Actions configuration file will be triggered. It will build and test your React application and then deploy it to Netlify.

This example demonstrates a basic CI/CD setup using GitHub Actions and Netlify. However, there are numerous other CI/CD platforms and deployment options available that can be configured based on your specific requirements and preferences.

By following these methodologies and best practices, you can develop a well-structured and maintainable React application. Remember to adapt the approach based on your specific project requirements and team dynamics.